Western Union (WU)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Western Union (disambiguation).
Western Union Company
Traded as NYSEWU
S&P 500 Component
Industry Financial services
Founded 1851; 164 years ago
Founder Ezra Cornell
Headquarters Meridian, Colorado, United States
Key people
Jack M. Greenberg
Hikmet Ersek
(President and CEO)
Services Wire transfers
Money orders
  • Decrease US$ 5,542.0 million (2013)[1]
  • Increase US$ 5,664.8 million (2012)[1]
  • Decrease US$ 1,107.4 million (2013)[1]
  • Decrease US$ 1,330.0 million (2012)[1]
  • Decrease US$ 798.4 million (2013)[1]
  • Decrease US$ 1,025.9 million (2012)[1]
Total assets
  • Increase US$ 10,121.3 million (2013)[2]
  • Increase US$ 9,465.7 million (2012)[1]
Total equity
  • Increase US$ 1,104.7 million (2013)[2]
  • Increase US$ 940.6 million (2012)[1]
Number of employees
7,000 (December 2010)[3]
Website WesternUnion.com

The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company. Its North American headquarters is in Meridian, Colorado, though the postal designation of nearby Englewood is used in its mailing address. Up until it discontinued the service in 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S. company in the business of exchanging telegrams.[4][5]

Western Union has several divisions, with products such as person-to-person money transfer, money orders, business payments and commercial services. They offered standard “Cablegrams”, as well as more cheerful products such as Candygrams, Dollygrams, and Melodygrams.

Western Union, as an industrialized monopoly, dominated the telegraph industry in the late 19th century. It was the first communications empire and set a pattern for American-style communications businesses as they are known today.[neutrality is disputed]

Dr. Eric Garcia


Associate Professor of Music

Eric Garcia recently joined the faculty of the Wanda L. Bass School of Music at Oklahoma City University, where he serves as Associate Professor and Music Director and Conductor of the Oklahoma City University Symphony Orchestra. He concurrently serves as Artistic Director of the Oklahoma Youth Orchestras. Garcia previously served as Assistant Conductor of the Seattle Symphony, conducting the orchestra in community, education, pops, popular culture, seasonal, and subscription concerts. He has also served as cover conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra.

Garcia has served as Director of Orchestral Studies, Director of the Frontiers New Music Ensemble, and Associate  Professor of Conducting at Oklahoma State University, Director of Orchestral Activities and Professor of Conducting at the University of Evansville, Music Director of the Evansville Philharmonic Youth Orchestra, and Director of Orchestras at St. Xavier University. As a committed advocate of music education, Garcia has served as Associate Conductor at the Eastern Music Festival and guest conductor and clinician for high school orchestras throughout the country.

An avid conductor of contemporary music, Garcia has premiered numerous compositions and worked directly with such esteemed composers as John Adams, Sergio Assad, George Crumb, Frank Ferko, David Lang, Lowell Lieberman, and Jay Alan Yim. He recently served on faculty at the Cortona Sessions for New Music in Cortona, Italy.

Garcia was a recipient of the Bruno Walter Foundation Scholarship to attend the Cabrillo Festival of Contemporary Music, where he worked with Marin Alsop. He was also a member of the American Academy of Conducting at the Aspen Music Festival and School, where he worked with Nicholas Kraemer, Murry Sidlin, Leonard Slatkin and David Zinman. His principal conducting teacher is Victor Yampolsky. Garcia received a Doctorate of Music and a Master of Music in Orchestral Conducting from Northwestern University. He received a Bachelor of Music in Music Theory from the University of Texas at Austin.

the stone boatmen by sarah tolmie

The Stone Boatmen evolved from Sarah Tolmie’s fascination with the fourteenth-century visionary poem, Piers Plowman, which she has also explored in the media of virtual reality and dance. The novel weaves a tale of three cities, separated by oceans, lost to one another long ago: the first, the city of rituals, of ceremonies; the second, the city of words, of poetry; and the third, the city of the golden birds, of dreams. In their harbors stand the stone boatmen, pointing outward toward the unknown. Now the birds are fostering a new-found relationship of the three cities of the ancestors, and the voyages of the ship Aphelion and its crew are beginning to rebuild the links.Ursula Le Guin declares of The Stone Boatmen: ”Certain imaginative novels never best-sell, yet remain alive, a singular treasure to each new generation that finds them — books such as Islandia, The Worm Ouroboros, Gormenghast. The Stone Boatmen has the makings of one of these quiet classics. It is lucid yet complex. Its strangeness fascinates, captivates. To read it is to find yourself in a country a long, long way from home, taken on a unforeseeable journey — and when it’s over, you wish you were still there.”


shenyang city


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the city. For the aircraft manufacturer, see Shenyang Aircraft Corporation. For other uses, see Shen Yang (disambiguation).
Sub-provincial city
From top: Hun River, Wulihe (五里河), Shisheng Temple, Zhongshan Square, Sanhao Bridge, Qingnian Street

From top: Hun River, Wulihe (五里河), Shisheng Temple, Zhongshan Square, Sanhao Bridge, Qingnian Street
Shenyang is located in Liaoning


Location of the city centre in Liaoning

Coordinates: 41.8°N 123.4°ECoordinates: 41.8°N 123.4°E
Country People’s Republic of China
Province Liaoning
 • Party Secretary Zeng Wei (曾维)
 • Mayor Chen Haibo (陈海波)
 • Sub-provincial city 12,942 km2 (4,997 sq mi)
 • Urban 3,464 km2 (1,337 sq mi)
Elevation 55 m (180 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Sub-provincial city 8,106,171
 • Density 630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Urban 6,255,921
 • Urban density 1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 110000
Area code(s) 24
License plate prefixes A
GDP (2013) CNY 715.9 billion
(USD 116.59 billion)[1]
 – per capita CNY 86,850
(USD 14,143)[1]
Flower Pinus tabuliformis
Tree Rosa rugosa
Website shenyang.gov.cn
Shenyang name (2).svg

“Shenyang” in Simplified Chinese
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 沈阳
Traditional Chinese 瀋陽
Postal Map Mukden
Literal meaning “North bank of the Shen [River]”
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝ᠋ᠨ
Romanization Mukden

Shenyang ([ʂə̀njɑ̌ŋ]; Chinese: 沈阳), formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden, is the provincial capital and largest city of Liaoning Province,[3] as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.[4] According to the 2010 census, the city’s urban area has 6.3 million inhabitants, while the total population of the Shenyang municipality is up to 8.1 million.[5] In the 17th century, Shenyang was conquered by the Manchu people and briefly used as the capital of the Qing dynasty.[6]

Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial centre in China,[7] and serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China’s northeast—particularly with Japan, Russia, and Korea.[8] A center of heavy industry in China since the 1930s, and the spearhead of the Chinese central government’s Northeast Area Revitalization Plan,[9] the city has been diversifying its industry and now has a solid industrial foundation, a good land and air transport network, abundant natural resources, and a skilled workforce.

The sub-provincial city region includes the nine metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and three counties of Liaozhong, Kangping and Faku.



Ancient era

The city’s name, Shenyang, contains a reference to the Chinese concept of Yin and Yang. It literally means “to the Yang side of the Shen River”, a reference to the fact that the Hun River, which was formerly known as the Shen River (Chinese: 渖水; Chinese: 瀋水; pinyin: Shěnshuǐ), is on the city’s south side. (In accordance with Chinese tradition, a river’s north bank and a mountain’s south slope are considered to be the “sunny” – or “Yang” – side.)[10]

Xinle Civilization

Archaeological findings show that humans resided in present-day Shenyang as early as 8,000 years ago. The remains of the Xinle culture, a Neolithic period society over 6,800-7,200 years old,[11] are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District. It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world. The City of Shenyang was first established by Qin Kai, a general of Yan in the Warring States period about 300 BCE.[12] It was at that time named Hou City (Chinese: 候城; pinyin: Hou Chéng). It became known as the Shen Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 渖州; traditional Chinese: 瀋州; pinyin: Shěn Zhōu) in the Jin dynasty and Shenyang Circuit (simplified Chinese: 渖阳路; traditional Chinese: 瀋陽路; pinyin: Shěnyáng Lù) in the Yuan dynasty.[13] During the Ming dynasty, it became Shenyang Zhongwei (simplified Chinese: 渖阳中卫; traditional Chinese: 瀋陽中衛; pinyin: Shěnyáng Zhōngwèi).

Capital of Manchus

In 1625, the Manchu leader Nurhaci captured Shenyang and moved his capital to the city, or Simiyan hoton (Manchu: ᠰᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡥ᠋ᠣᡨ᠋ᠣᠨ) as it is called in Manchu language.[6] The official name was changed to Shengjing, or Mukden (Manchu: ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝ᠋ᠨ), in 1634. The name derives from the Manchu word, mukdembi (Manchu: ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝ᠋ᠮᠪ᠊ᡳ᠋), meaning “to rise”, and this is reflected by its Chinese name, which means literally, “rising capital”.[14] A major city needed a major building and in 1626 under Nurhaci‘s orders the Imperial Palace emerged as Shenyang’s symbolic center. It featured more than 300 ostentatiously decorated rooms and 20 gardens as a symbol of power and grandeur.[14]

After the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644, Manchu rule moved west inside the great wall and was established in China proper in Beijing. However, it retained considerable importance as the previous capital and the spiritual home of the Qing dynasty through the centuries.[14] Treasures of the royal house were kept at its palaces, and the tombs of the early Qing rulers were once among the most famous monuments in China. In 1657, Fengtian Prefecture (Manchu: ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠨ᠋ᡤᡤᠠ᠋ ᡶ᠋ᡠ; Möllendorff: Abkai imiyangga fu or Manchu: ᡶ᠋ᡠᠨ᠋ᡤᡨ᠋ᠶᡳᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: Fungtyian) was established in the Shenyang area, and Fengtian was sometimes used synonymously with Shenyang/Mukden.[15]

Russian and Japanese concessions

With the building of the South Manchurian Railway, Mukden became a stronghold of Russia, which occupied it after the Boxer Rebellion.[16][17]

During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Mukden was the site of the Battle of Mukden from 19 February 1905 to 10 March 1905.[18][19] Involving more than 600,000 combat participants, it was the largest battle since the battle of Leipzig in 1813, and also the largest modern-era battle ever fought in Asia before World War II.[20] Following the Japanese victory, the Japanese concession at Mukden was one of the chief bases for Japanese economic expansion into southern Manchuria. Mukden also became the government seat of Fengtian province in 1910.[21]

Warlord Era and Japanese invasion

In 1914, the city changed back to its old name Shenyang,[22] but continued to be known as Mukden in some English sources (sometimes spelled Moukden) through much of the 20th century and in Japan until 1945. The postmark of the Chinese postal administration kept the spelling “MOUKDEN/奉天” for usage on international mails until the late 1920s. After that, a Chinese–Manchurian bilingual type SHENYANG (MUKDEN)/瀋陽 (奉天) datestamp type was used until 1933.

In the early 20th century, Shenyang began expanding out of its old city walls. Shenyang Railway Station on the South Manchurian Railway and the Shenyang North Railway Station (today’s old north station) on the Jingfeng railway became new commercial centers of Shenyang.[23] In the 1920s, Mukden was the capital of the warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was killed when his train was blown up on 4 June 1928.[24] near Mukden at a Japanese-guarded railway bridge.[25] Several factories were built by Chang Tso-lin to manufacture ammunition in the northern and eastern suburbs. These factories laid the foundation for Shenyang’s industrial development.[26]

Japanese troops entering Shenyang during Mukden Incident

The Mukden Incident in 1931, which gave the Japanese the pretext to create the Manchukuo state, took place near Shenyang.[27] On September 18, 1931, a small quantity of dynamite was detonated by Lt. Kawamoto Suemori[28] close to a railway line owned by Japan‘s South Manchuria Railway near Mukden.[29] The Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria.[29] On the morning of the following day (September 19), the Japanese had occupied Mukden.[29][30] During the Manchukuo era (1932–1945) the city was called Fengtian in Chinese again, and Mukden in English.[31] During the Japanese occupation, Shenyang was developed into a center of heavy industry.[31][32] Japan was able to exploit resources in Manchuria using the extensive network of railroads.[33] For example, vast expanses of Manchurian forest were chopped down.[34] Construction of Shenyang is also unbalanced in this period. Municipal facilities mostly located in Japanese residential areas, while Chinese residential area in poor living conditions.[32]

Post World War II

People’s Liberation Army and Type 97 Chi-Ha tanks advance into Shenyang.

Under Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, the Far East Command[35] of Soviet forces entered Manchuria in early August 1945 following the surrender of Japan.[36] On 16 August 1945, Manchurian Emperor Puyi was captured in Shenyang Airport by the Soviet Red Army while he was in an airplane fleeing to Japan.[37] On 20 August, Soviet troops captured Shenyang. British and US reports indicate that the Soviet troops that occupied Northeast China and Eastern Inner Mongolia region looted and terrorized the people of Shenyang, and were not discouraged by Soviet authorities from “three days of rape and pillage”.[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] The Soviets were replaced by the Nationalist Chinese, who were flown in on U.S. transport planes.[47] During the Chinese Civil War, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold from 1946 to 1948, although the Chinese communists controlled the surrounding countryside.[48] It was captured by the communists on October 30, 1948 following a series of offensives known as the Liaoshen Campaign.[44][49]

Over the past 200 years or so, Shenyang somehow managed to grow and increase its industrial might, despite consecutive wars by Russia and Japan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Second World War, and China’s Civil War (Shenyang became the main battleground between the Communists and Nationalists). The city never came to an economic halt until the 1990s, when its massive factories went bankrupt and left millions jobless, which was well documented in the film Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks.[50]

Old City

Shenyang used to have two city walls.[51] The inner city wall was built in 1625. Most of it was rebuilt on the old city wall of the Ming dynasty, and the city wall gates were increased from four to eight. The outer city wall was built in 1680 to protect the urban area outside the inner city wall, which also had eight gates. The total length of the outer city wall is around 16 km (9.9 mi). Nearly all of the city walls were demolished after 1949. Two gates and one corner tower of the inner city wall were rebuilt during the 1990s.

Around 2.5 km (1.6 mi) outside Shenyang’s outer city wall, there were four pagodas and four temples: East Pagoda/Yongguang Temple, South Pagoda/Guangci Temple, West Pagoda/Yanshou Temple, and North Pagoda/Falun Temple. They were built in 1643. The four Pagodas are identical Buddha-stupas as high as 26 m (85 ft). Only the North Pagoda and Temple is well preserved. As for the East and the South, only the pagodas are left. The West Pagoda was rebuilt in 1998.

Both the Temple of Heaven and Temple of Earth were also to be found in the old city during the Qing dynasty. They were smaller replicas of Beijing’s counterparts. Neither exists today.

Geography and climate

Satellite image of Shenyang-Fushun urban agglomeration
(larger western part is Shenyang, eastern part is Fushun), Landsat 5, 2010-09-29.
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA[52]

Shenyang ranges in latitude from 41° 11′ to 43° 02′ N and in longitude from 122° 25′ to 123° 48′ E, and is located in the central part of Liaoning Province. The western parts of the city’s administrative area are located on the alluvial plain of the Liao River, while the eastern part consists of the hinterlands of the Changbai Mountains, and is covered with forests.[53] The highest point in Shenyang is 414 metres (1,358 ft) and the lowest point only 7 metres (23 ft). The main urban area is located to the north of Hun River, a major tributary of the Liao River.[54] The average elevation of the urban area is 45 metres (148 ft).[55] North Canal and South Canal flow to the north and south of the urban area respectively, which follows the historic course of Hun River.

Shenyang has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) characterised by hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons here are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August. Monthly mean temperatures range from −11.0 °C (12.2 °F) in January to 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) in July, for an annual average of 8.39 °C (47.1 °F). The frost-free period is 183 days, which is long considering the severity of the winters.[56] The city receives 2,468 hours of bright sunshine annually; monthly percent of possible ranges from 45 percent in July to 62 percent in October. Extreme temperatures range from −33.1 °C (−28 °F) to 39.3 °C (103 °F).[57]

Perry Carnegie Library and Ponca City Journal

when I see Holly LaBossiere,
I see calm sense and mature wisdom,
a trip to Ponca city is planned.
Bright sky,
177, North Boomer, Washington drive,
65 miles north, reaching Harding, Elm Wood, Grand, Highland, Hartford, Badlands, Marland, and 7 clans.
Books are our series business,
I touch sandwiched books, row by row,
I couldn’t help being inspired by Abby Van Buren, Diana Henry, Tanya Fleisher, Aaron & Kimberlee Buchanan,
George Atwood, Alyssa Lucas, Morty Owen Schapiro.
Marland children’s home passes love,
U. S. Air Force carries powerful faith,
Jill Clothes wear painted desert image and frozen breeze.
potatoes, or malingshu, or Yangyu,
which are bought home from Perry Homeland shop,
the Ponca City news plus Perry Daily Journal add to our current news.
Conoco Oncue gas,
Car wash express?
Tonkawa news?
Ask updates of Gloria Brown, Paige Frank, Steve Womack, Pam Young,
Laryn Rice, Kyanne Welch, Rosie Cohen, Shelock Thomas, Emily Wood, and Andrew Wisdom…